This book is directed specifically to national TB control programs and their partners. It is intended to help to select and implement the steps needed to ensure that the guiding principles of equity and poverty reduction are translated into practical measures - and that these practical measures are integrated into the national TB services and linked to broader poverty alleviation efforts. Guidance is provided on how to identify the poor and vulnerable groups in the country, how to assess the main barriers they face in accessing TB services, and interventions to tackle and reduce these barriers. Consideration is given to strengthening the resources needed to improve equity in access to TB services and how to assess the impact of the pro-poor measures adopted. The measures outlined in this book are based on best practices derived from an increasing array of innovative measures taken by TB control programs and other health services in a number of countries.