'Working in Health' addresses two key questions related to health workforce policy in developing countries: - What is the impact of government wage bill policies on the size of the health wage bill and on health workforce staffing levels in the public sector? - Do current human resources management policies and practices lead to effective use of wage bill resources in the public sector? Health workers play a key role in increasing access to health services for poor people in developing countries. Global and country level estimates show that staffing levels in many developing countries--particularly in sub-Saharan Africa--are far below what is needed to deliver essential health services to the population. One factor that potentially limits scaling up the health workforce in developing countries is the government overall wage bill policy which sometimes creates restrictions. Through a review of literature, analysis of data, and country case studies in Kenya, Zambia, Rwanda, and the Dominican Republic, this book examines the process that determines the health wage bill budget in the public sector, how this is linked to overall wage bill policies, how this affects staffing levels in the health sector, and the relevant policy options. But staff numbers are not everything and more money for the health wage bill alone will not solve the health workforce problems of developing countries. 'Working in Health' looks at how effectively governments use the available wage bill resources in the health sector and policy options. Policies and practices in recruitment, deployment, promotion, transfer, sanctioning, and remuneration for health workers are reviewed to identify their influence on budget execution rates, geographic distribution, and productivity of health workers.