According to the authors of 'Zambia', poverty is on the rise in the country, its economy is not growing fast enough, the quality of economic governance is on the decline, and its public resources are not well spent. Addressing the longstanding challenges that Zambia faces in public expenditure management will require strong political will. In order to assure that public accountability is enduring and not dependent on the government which happens to be in power, it must strengthen budget processes and institutions that can provide public oversight and promote basic checks and balances. This country study provides an analysis of how Zambia can strengthen budgetary processes and institutions for accountability and effective service delivery to its citizens. It's specific objectives are to: (a) provide comprehensive and integrated assessment of the country's overall fiduciary risk -- budget management, financial systems and auditing, and public procurement; (b) highlight progress on public expenditure management reforms and challenges; and (c) develop a realistic action plan outlining short and medium term remedial measures which it's government may consider for implementation.