As a transition economy, the Slovak Republic has achieved a high ranking in terms of human development. This does not, however, obscure the fact that many families and individuals of Slovakia live in poverty. While key variables contributing to poverty are readily identified, the lack of education, employment, and data make it difficult to accurately monitor poverty in the Slovak Republic. The intention of this study is to evaluate poverty in the Slovak Republic and its relationship with labor market outcomes. This study makes key policy recommendations to reduce poverty by reducing unemployment while instituting measurement processes to evaluate the impact of reforms. The recommendations to reduce poverty suggest actions in three specific areas. These areas include increasing the demand for labor by continuing efforts to attract private investment; improving the matching of skilled laborers to the market demands through education and training; and transitioning workers away from reliance upon government benefits towards employment.